Margin Money और Collateral Security नहीं है तो Business loan कैसे मिलेगा

जब भी हम business loan के लिए बैंक को approach करेंगे तो हमे अपने business project को बैंक से फाइनेंस करवाने में दो प्रॉब्लम आएँगी.

  1. मार्जिन मनी- बैंक के नियमो के आधार पर यदि हम बैंक से business loan ले रहे है तो इसके लिए ये जरुरी है की business स्टार्ट करने वाले का भी उस business में अपना पैसा लगाया जा रहा हो, जो की कम से कम प्रोजेक्ट कास्ट का 25% होना चाहिए तब बैंक 75% loan देने के लिए तैयार होगा, जैसे आपका प्रोजेक्ट कास्ट 1 करोड़ का है तो आपको मार्जिन मनी के रूप में 25 लाख रुपया अपना लगाना होगा  जिसे मार्जिन मनी बोला जाता है तब बैंक आपको 75 लाख का loan देने के लिए तैयार हो सकता है , अगर business स्टार्ट करने वाले के पास मार्जिन money नहीं है तो ऐसी स्थिति में बैंक आपके प्रोजेक्ट को फाइनेंस नहीं करेगा.
  2. बैंक जब प्रोजेक्ट कास्ट का 75% फाइनेंस करेगा तब इसके लिए आपसे collateral security देने को बोला जायेगा, जिसमे आपको जमीन,मकान,शेयर,ज्वेलरी, फिक्स्ड डिपाजिट,इन्सुरेन्स इत्यादि का पेपर बैंक के पास गिरवी रखना होता है, साथ ही साथ किसी ऐसे ब्यक्ति को आपके द्वारा लिए जाने वाले loan के लिए guarantor भी बनाना पड़ता है जिसकी guarantee पर बैंक ये भरोसा कर सके की यदि आप loan का repayment करने में डिफ़ॉल्ट करते है तो ऐसा ब्यक्ति आपके loan को चुकाने की क्षमता रखता है.

अब यदि देखा जाय जब आप कोई नया business setup करने जा रहे है तो ज्यादातर लोगो के पास अपने business प्रोजेक्ट को बैंक से फाइनेंस करवाने के लिए ना तो अपने हिस्से का मार्जिन मनी होता है और न ही जरुरी collateral security और guarantor होता है, और इन दोनों के अभाव में न तो बैंक आपको business loan देगा न ही आपका business setup करने का सपना पूरा होगा.

इस समस्या से निकलने और अपने business idea को मूर्त रूप में लाने के लिए हमे क्या करना है, इस बात को अच्छे से समझ लीजिये..

मार्जिन मनी जो की प्रोजेक्ट कास्ट का 25% लगाना होता है, जो यदि आपके पास नहीं है तो कुछ विशेष स्थिति में बैंक मार्जिन मनी को भी फाइनेंस करता है, जैसे:-

(i) आपके पास कोई higher qualification है ( MBA,Engineering etc )

(ii) जब आपने अपने प्रोजेक्ट में काफी रिसर्च की है और अब आपको उसका काफी knowledge है

(iii) जब आप कोई नया innovative idea के तहत business स्टार्ट कर रहे है

यदि आपके पास ऐसा higher digree या knowledge नहीं है तो भी आप मार्जिन मनी के लिए SIDBI के किसी भी ब्रांच में जाकर मिल सकते है, SIDBI नए entrepreneurs को मार्जिन मनी के लिए loan देती है जिसे Risk Capital या Seed Capital बोला जाता है. इसके लिए SIDBI ने India Aspiration Fund और SMILE (SIDBI Make In India Loan for Small Enterprise) जैसी स्कीम चला रही है जिसमे नए enterpreneurs को मार्जिन मनी के लिए support किया जाता है.

मार्केट में कई venture capitalist Firm भी है जो नए business को setup करने और चलाने में अपना पैसा लगाती है, आप अपने प्रोजेक्ट के लिए ऐसे venture capitalist Firm से भी संपर्क कर सकते है.

यदि सभी कोशिशो के बाद भी आपको बैंक से मार्जिन मनी के लिए loan नहीं मिल पा रहा है तो फिर, आपके पास जितना पैसा है और आप अपने family / friends से अपने business के लिए जितना पैसा जुटा पाते है उतने ही पैसो को मार्जिन मनी का 25% हिस्सा मानते हुवे 75% बैंक loan के लिए apply करे, मतलब यदि आपके पास 10 लाख रुपया ही है तो फिर आप 1 करोड़ की जगह maximum 40 लाख तक का ही business project तैयार करे जिससे की 30 लाख का loan आपको बैंक से आसानी से मिल जायेगा, फिर धीरे धीरे अपने business को बड़ा करे.

यदि आपका प्रोजेक्ट कास्ट 25 लाख या इससे कम का है तो फिर PMEGP (Prime Minister Employment Generation Programme) में भी आप loan ले सकते है, इसमें अच्छी बातये है की इसमें आपको मार्जिन मनी सिर्फ 5-10% ही लगाना होता है और प्रोजेक्ट कास्ट का 90% तक आपको loan मिल सकता है, साथ ही इस स्कीम में 15-35 % तक का subsidy भी दिया जाता है जो की आपको अपने business को लगाने और उसे सफलता पूर्वक चलाने के लिए प्रोत्साहन के रूप में दिया जाता है. और आपका प्रोजेक्ट कास्ट 25 लाख से ज्यादा है तो फिर अन्य लोगो को पार्टनर के रूप जोड़कर भी आप PMEGP में अपने प्रोजेक्ट को फाइनेंस करवा सकते है.

दूसरी जो समस्या है collateral security और guarantor का तो इसके लिए भारत सरकार का एक स्कीम है CGTMSE (Credit Guarantee Fund Trust For Micro and Small Enterprises) जिसमे यदि आपका प्रोजेक्ट हर तरह से अच्छा है तो फिर 2 करोड़ तक का loan आप बिना किसी collateral security और guarantor के ले सकते है, इसके लिए आप बैंक से अपने loan को CGTMSE के तहत करने को बोल सकते है, ये स्कीम बहोत ही अच्छी स्कीम है जो की आपको collateral security और guarantor के बिना भी business loan दिला सकती है

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